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Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human activities have produced a 45% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other Greenhouse Gasses (GHG).

The majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, oil, and natural gas, and large power stations and manufacturing plants are increasingly required to report their emissions to government entities.

The Paris Agreement in 2015 was a commitment by 195 of the world’s countries to limit global warming to less than two degrees Celsius, and countries are using various mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions in accordance with their commitments.

Government driven initiatives

A carbon price is a cost applied to GHG emissions, to encourage polluters to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases they emit into the atmosphere: it usually takes the form of a carbon tax or a requirement to purchase permits to emit, generally known as carbon emissions trading, but also called "allowances".

Business and market driven initiatives

The benefits for companies of reducing their emissions goes beyond those relating to cost. Cleaner production is increasingly associated with risk management, business transformation, innovation, operating efficiency, reputation and long-term value creation for investors.

Market forces, such as procurement requirements for GHG reporting, or voluntary initiatives, such as the Science Based Target initiative are providing bottom-up ‘business-case’ drivers for change.


Lloyd has in one way or another been involved in climate change related projects since 2009. His technical experience grew rapidly from around 2014, just prior to the announcement of South Africa’s carbon tax. Since that time GSA Campbell has been training and positioning customers, using GHG Protocol and IPCC methodologies, and working with them to establish Scope 3 emissions profiles, emission factors and Carbon Footprint Reports.


Lloyd's work has included:

  • GHG emissions mapping

  • Carbon footprint reporting and training

  • Carbon tax readiness programmes, including audits and verification

  • Carbon tax assessments and carbon tax training

  • Carbon offsets

  • CDP

  • Report assurance: GHG emissions

  • Designing GHG software systems

Lloyd was responsible for all research, analysis and system architecture for the Veriport Carbon Footprint reporting software platform. This role provided him with a deep experience in GHG practices and methodologies, and the success of the system was based on its ability to simplify GHG inventory management and reporting for companies, across sites and geographical boundaries.

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